The Japanese military's attitude towards surrender was institutionalized in the "Code of Battlefield Conduct" Senjinkun , which was issued to all Japanese soldiers. While this measure was successful in avoiding unrest, it led to hostility between those who surrendered before and after the end of the war and denied prisoners of the Soviets POW status. Japanese POWs often believed that by surrendering they had broken all ties with Japan, and many provided military intelligence to the Allies. Journal of Contemporary History. Naval Intelligence and the Imperial Japanese Fleet. Millions of Japanese military personnel surrendered following the end of the war. The Journal of Modern History. Western Allied governments and senior military commanders directed that Japanese POWs be treated in accordance with relevant international conventions.